Difference between pelton, francis and kaplan turbines. Kaplan turbine is used for high flow rates and low lows. Hydraulic turbineshydraulic turbines session delivered by. Please find below a list of our technical publications on kaplan, bulb and matrix turbines for water power plants. Types of reaction turbines kaplan turbine francis turbine kinetic turbine 15. Water pressure decreases as it passes through the turbine imparting reaction on the turbine blades making the turbine rotate. Introduction to francis turbine diagram, working principle the francis turbine is mixed flow reaction turbine. Hydropower turbines are in two types as impulse and reaction where kaplan turbine is a reaction type which was invented in 19. Kaplan turbines francis turbine construct blade vector diagrams for moving vanes for a pelton wheels and a francis turbine deduce formulae for power and efficiency for turbines. Kaplan turbines could technically work across a wide range of heads and flow rates, but because of other turbine types being more effective on higher heads, and because kaplan s are relative expensive, they are the turbine of choice for lower head sites with high flow rates.
It was developed in 19 by the austrian professor viktor kaplan. Alternatively, the more expensive kaplan turbine has variablepitch blades which can be altered to give much better partload efficiency, perhaps 90% at one third of full rated output. Hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric power plants 1. The vertical configuration of the kaplan turbine allows for larger runner diameters above 10 m and increased unit power, as compared to bulb turbines. Gap losses friction losses in the spiral casing and stay vanes guide vane losses friction losses runner losses draft tube losses. Hydraulic turbineshydraulic turbines raven mechanical. At present, kaplan turbines are more widely used for their dual regulating function, which allows them to operate in a wide range of hydraulic. Named for its austrian inventor, viktor kaplan 18761934, the turbine was an outstanding innovation, operating with a high, nearly constant efficiency over a wide load range. Turbines kaplan francis the kaplan turbine was invented in the czech republic by victor kaplan in 1912 1914. In francis turbine water flow is radial into the turbine and exits the turbine axially. It is capable of working at low head and high flow rates very efficiently which is impossible with francis turbine. Kaplan turbine and francis turbine pdfcomponents, working. The inward flow reaction turbine having radial discharge at outlet is known as francis turbine, after the name of j. Kaplan turbine it is an axial flow reaction turbine.
This operates in an entirely closed conduit to tailrace. Evolution from francis turbine to kaplan turbine wikipedia. The kaplan turbine is a propeller turbine, with moving blades. However, most rotational speed equations were conceived for power. It was developed in 19 by austrian professor viktor kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level the kaplan turbine was an evolution of the francis turbine. The axial turbines include the kaplan, bulbs and propeller turbines reaction. Main guide bearings for francis and kaplan turbines hydro bearing innovation offering superior lifetime value and environmental benefits that is nsf61 certified.
It was designed by american scientist james francis. The basic difference between pelton, francis and kaplan turbines. Retrieved 10 march 2017 via national library of australia. For wide head ranges and large flow volumes our francis turbines can be. Kaplan turbines can operate under a wide range of head conditions, but francis turbine requires relatively higher head conditions. Kaplan turbine works on the principle of axial flow reaction. Kaplan turbine has lesser friction loss and higher efficiency. This kaplan turbine is one of the first three machines to be put into service in the united states.
What is the difference between a pelton wheel and the. The rotation speed rpm is higher than that of the francis turbine. View francis turbine ppts online, safely and virusfree. Most of the equations presented for the francis turbine also apply to the kaplan or propeller turbine, apart from the treatment of the runner. Kaplan turbine is smaller and compact compared to francis turbine.
What is the differences between pelton turbine and kaplan turbine. Francis and kaplan turbines notes for civil engineering. Kaplan hydro turbine is axial overpressure water turbine, which has a radial inflow, outflow, however axial. Mavels kaplan turbines involve design modifications such as a vertical scroll case turbine, bulb turbine, pit turbine, s turbine and z saxo turbine. The francis turbine is a mixedflow radial turbine and is used for medium heads in the range from 5 to 400 m.
With about 60% of the global hydropower capacity in the world, francis turbines are the most widely used type of hydro turbine. Lignum vitae is leading the way back to waterlubricated bearings in the hydro industry ahead of epa regulations. In this lesson, i will discuss the parts, working, efficiency, advantages, disadvantages of a francis turbine, and also give you the pdf. Load rejection transient process simulation of a kaplan turbine. Therefore, in this article, we can discuss both the kaplan turbine and reaction turbine so that we can complete the session of hydraulic turbines. The kaplan turbine was an evolution of the francis turbine. It is also called as propeller turbine and evolved from the francis turbine. Difference between francis and kaplan turbine pdf 23.
Hydraulic turbines fundamental operating parameters classification impulse turbines pelton turbines reaction turbines radial flow. Following are the differences between pelton wheel, francis and kaplan turbine. Design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Francis and kaplan turbines belong to this category. The kaplan turbine design has improved significantly since that time. The rotational speed estimation of francis and kaplan turbines is of primary importance in the design of hydropower plants. The kaplan turbine is a propellertype water turbine which has adjustable blades. Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine where static pressure head of water is converted into mechanical energy. With a double regulation system, kaplan turbines provide high efficiency over a broad range of configurations. Losses in francis turbines hydraulic efficiency % output energy output % friction losses between runner and covers friction losses.
On the other hand francis and kaplan turbines are reacti. It consists of spiral casing, guide mechanism and draft tube of kaplan turbine runner are similar to those of francis turbine. To understand the importance of various parameters involved in the design of pelton, francis and kaplan turbines g. Andritz hydro provides a wide variety of different turbine types from pelton turbines for high head applications and large output over francis turbines for the medium net head range and large output up to 800 mw per unit to kaplan turbines for low head operation with small unit output. Introduction a water turbine is a device for converting water fluid power into. According to their construction, working and operating conditions following are the major.
Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. Cfd study on the replacement of an old lowhead francis turbine by a kaplan turbine. For a wide range of flow rate is achieved a very good yields, even more than 92%. Its invention allowed efficient power production in the low head application that was not possible with francis turbine. Hundreds of hydro plant owners rediscovered this proven technology. We offer basic advising, designing and construction hydro power plants, manufacturing and complete equipment supplying and installations. Kaplan turbine is now widely used throughout the world for highflow, low head power production. The turbine casing, with the runner fully immersed in water, must be strong enough to withstand the operating pressure.
Pdf optimal rotational speed of kaplan and francis. Main guide bearings for francis and kaplan turbines. Turbines that operate in this way are called reaction turbines. This turbine is used for medium heads with medium discharge. Technical publications on kaplan, bulb and matrix turbines. Francis turbine converts energy at high pressure heads which are not easily available and. Difference between kaplan and francis turbine compare. Francis turbine is a mixed hydraulic turbine the inlet velocity has radial and tangential components while the kaplan turbine is an axial hydraulic turbine the inlet velocity has only axial velocity component. Kaplan turbine the kaplan turbine is a water turbine which has adjustable blades and is used for low heads and high discharges. The efficiency of a turbine is highly influenced by its runner wheel and this work aims to study the design of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. What we have not done is the component of the reaction turbines, francis and kaplan, so i will spend some time to discuss the components, the velocity triangles. We design and manufacture pelton, kaplan, francis turbines, crossflow turbines ep2642115, hydro machinery and electrical equipment for hydro plants.
What is the differences between pelton turbine and kaplan. Hydro power plants have the highest operating efficiency of all renewable generation. Kaplan turbine is employed, where a large quantity of water is available. Pemp classification of hydraulic turbines rmd 2501 hydraulic turbines are generally classified as. Water turbines stredni prumyslova skola strojnicka. Solve numerical problems for a pelton wheels and a francis turbine. Hydropower is not only environmentally friendly, but also costeffective. A kaplan turbine is a water turbine that was developed by austrian professor viktor kaplan in 19 and francis turbine was developed by james. B francis an american engineer who in beginning designed inward radial flow reaction turbine. Francis turbine had some limitations which were overcome by kaplan turbine. Our kaplan turbines also keep the environment in mind.
Victor kaplan, inventor of the kaplan turbine hydropower project tocoma pdf. Differences between francis and kaplan turbines mech4study. Production and installation of large turbines of this type is very expensive, but they work reliably for a long time. In axial flow turbines, the water flows through the runner along the direction. Water enters the runner and flows towards the centre of wheel in the radial direction and leaves parallel to the axis of the turbine. The working procedure, main components and its application is discussed in this article.358 1034 706 1440 754 912 378 1503 990 1254 160 1338 819 706 1424 545 309 685 881 162 1365 1233 763 1291 469 1179 390 1027 1394 594 1411